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踩剎車踏板突然很費勁-Why is the brake pedal hard to press down suddenly?

作者:廣州星展汽車配件有限公司 瀏覽: 發表時間:2019-12-27 16:40:52



行車故事

那天在路上正常行駛,踩剎車踏板時突然感覺很費勁,剎車踏板根本踩不下去,過了一會再踩剎車踏板,好在剎車恢復正常了,車速也慢了下來?,F在想到當時的情形還感覺有些后怕!為何會出現這種狀況呢?





在很多汽車的液壓剎車系統中,有一個重要的部件,就是真空助力器,它裝在剎車踏板和剎車總泵之間,起到助力的作用,用來增加駕駛者踩剎車總泵的力量。我們通常所說的剎車變硬,如果是故障性的問題,通常是真空助力器和相關部件出了故障,下面我們就來了解真空助力器的工作方式和此類故障應該如何檢修。


真空助力器的工作方式

發動機工作時會吸入空氣,通過連接在發動機進氣系統上的真空管,剎車真空助力器膜片的一側會產生真空,而另一側是正??諝鈮毫?,因此產生壓力差,利用這個壓力差,來加大剎車踏板給予剎車總泵施加的推力。所以當我們踩剎車踏板的時候,會感覺到輕輕一踩剎車踏板就能剎住車。



真空助力器故障的檢查

根據真空助力器的工作原理可知,只有在發動機工作的情況下,真空助力器才會起作用。當發動機熄火后,真空助力器中的真空會慢慢消失,所以在剛熄火的時候,剎車踏板能夠踩下去,但是踩幾腳后,真空消失了就很難再踩動,此時液壓剎車系統并不是失靈了,而是在失去了助力的情況下,正常踩下剎車踏板的力量已經不夠用了。


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發動機熄火后,踩幾下剎車踏板,就會很硬踩不動了;起動發動機后,踩剎車踏板會變軟降低,則說明真空助力器是工作的,此時應繼續檢查真空管是否漏氣,導致發動機真空不足。如果真空管漏氣,通常會影響發動機怠速,導致怠速不穩或怠速時容易熄火。


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如果助力器上連接的真空管和單向閥沒有問題,且故障是偶發現象時有時無,則通常是真空助力器故障,應更換。


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如果積碳堵塞了發動機真空管或導致管口變小,導致真空助力器獲得的真空度不夠,在連續踩剎車的情況下會感覺剎車越來越硬,而長時間不剎車,再踩剎車又是正常的。


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在高海拔地區,如果腳一直踩著剎車踏板,可能會造成真空助力器的真空度不夠,踩剎車時會出現變硬的情況。


剎車系統故障無小事, 我們只有做好日常車輛的檢查和養護,才能降低剎車系統出現故障的幾率,保證行車安全。



A driving experience

I was driving normally on the road that day. The brake pedal suddenly can’t be pressed down. Fortunately, the brake returned to normal to slow the speed down when I pressed the brake pedal again after a while. I am still so scared as soon as recalling this experience! Why is it so happened? 





There is an important component in the hydraulic brake system of many vehicles, namely the vacuum booster, which is installed between the brake pedal and the brake master cylinder, and acts as a booster to increase the power applied to the master cylinder when the driver is pressing down on the brake pedal. If brake stiffness is due to a fault, usually it is the vacuum booster and related components that have failed. Now let's see how the vacuum booster works and how to detect and repair such failures.


How the vacuum booster works

When the engine is working, it will inhale air. A vacuum is generated on one side of the vacuum brake booster diaphragm by means of a vacuum pipe connected to the engine air intake system, while the other side is the normal air pressure, thus creating a pressure difference that increases the thrust applied by the brake pedal to the brake master cylinder. So when we press the brake pedal, it feels like we can stop the vehicle with a light pressure on the brake pedal.



Vacuum booster troubleshooting

Based on the working principle of the vacuum booster, the vacuum booster will work only if the engine is working. When the engine is turned off, the vacuum in the vacuum booster will gradually disappear, so the brake pedal can be pressed down right after the engine is turned off, but becomes difficult to be pressed down after a few times because the vacuum has disappeared. At this point, the hydraulic brake system is not malfunctioning, but is unable to stop the vehicle by just pressing the brake pedal with normal force given the vacuum loss.


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If the brake pedal becomes stiff after being pressed a few times when the engine is turned off; and becomes soft and depresses after being pressed when the engine is started, then the vacuum booster is working. At this point one should continue to check the vacuum pipe for leakage that can result in insufficient engine vacuum. If the vacuum pipe leaks, it will usually affect the engine’s idle speed, which will cause the engine to shut down in the event of unstable idle speed or when idle.


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If the vacuum pipe and the one-way valve connected to the booster are trouble free, and the fault is occasional, then the vacuum booster is usually faulty and should be replaced.


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If carbon deposits clog the engine vacuum pipe or cause the nozzle to become smaller, the vacuum booster may not have enough vacuum, so that it feels stiffer and stiffer when the brake is pressed consecutively, but feels normal when the brake is pressed again after a long time.


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In high altitude regions, if the foot is constantly pressed on the brake pedal, the vacuum booster may not have enough vacuum, so that it feels stiff when the brake is pressed.


Nothing is unimportant in brake system failure. Only through regular vehicle inspection and maintenance the chance of brake system failure be reduced, ensuring driving safety.




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