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制動與這些傳感器密不可分-Indispensable sensors

作者:廣州星展汽車配件有限公司 瀏覽: 發表時間:2019-12-27 15:31:23

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車輛的制動系統早已不再是司機踩踏板、制動盤片摩擦讓車輪減速這么簡單。制動助力、制動防抱死、車身穩定,以及高級駕駛輔助等功能的出現,讓駕駛員所需的制動操作技術大大簡化。而若是制動系統存在故障,也會對駕駛員發出提示。這一切,與傳感器在制動系統中的應用密切相關。今天,我們就來聊聊制動系統中幾種主要傳感器的作用。


1.制動片磨損監測

車輛前制動片的摩擦材料靠近鋼背的位置連接一根帶插接器的線束,這根線束內部有兩根導線,并且在沒入制動摩擦片的一端是連通的??刂茊卧ㄟ^輪速傳感器的線束對其供電,并監測這段線路的電阻。當摩擦材料消耗到極限,制動片上的導線會暴露出來并被磨斷。此時,控制單元會監測到這段線束為斷路(電阻無限大),隨即在儀表板發出制動報警提示。


2.輪速傳感器

輪速傳感器的作用是實時監測車輪轉速,作為ABS泵向各個車輪分配制動力的參考數據。ABS泵通過讀取輪速傳感器信號,判斷各個車輪之間的轉速差,來調節單個制動分泵的制動力度。若ABS泵發現某個車輪的轉速不正常(明顯高于或低于其他車輪),便會加大或減小這個車輪的制動力度,避免制動跑偏和抱死。輪速傳感器故障,儀表板會點亮ABS故障報警燈。


3.制動液液位傳感器

在現代化汽車的制動系統中,制動液負責將駕駛員腳踩制動踏板的力量傳遞給四個車輪的制動分泵。制動管路中有充足的制動液,是液力可以有效推動制動分泵活塞的重要前提。制動液罐位于一輛車液力制動管路的最高處,這里設置有一個液位傳感器。這個傳感器利用制動液導電性傳遞信號,當液位下降,傳感器的電極會暴露在空氣中無法導電,引發儀表板報警。


4.ACC/ADAS雷達

發達的電子技術可以讓汽車更加智能和安全,很多汽車都搭載了自適應巡航ACC和自動緊急制動AEB等功能。這些駕駛輔助功能可以實現汽車的自主制動,通過安裝在車輛前杠部位的激光雷達、毫米波雷達和超聲波雷達來檢測車輛與前方障礙物之間的距離。但是,電子設備很難保證不出現故障,當這些雷達出了問題,車輛儀表板通常會出現ACC故障報警等提示。


5.制動盤溫度傳感器

制動力會因為制動盤、片過熱而出現衰退。一些高性能車,以及性能改裝車會配備制動盤溫度傳感器,用于感知車輛制動系統的溫度。這是一種非接觸式的溫度傳感器,通過接收熱輻射并換算成溫度顯示給駕駛員。而更高級的應用是通過這個溫度信號,驅動制動通風口處的風板電機來控制散熱風量??勺屩苿颖P快速升溫到工作溫度,也可在過熱時加大降溫風量。


6.制動信號傳感器

開自動擋車型的車主都知道,從P擋掛入R擋,需要踩制動。此時,制動燈開關(左)會被接通,電信號會點亮制動燈,同時傳遞給發動機和變速器,作為激活信號。部分車型的發動機只有讀取到這個信號才能起動,自動變速器也必須讀到這個信號才會允許掛入R擋。此外,會有少數車型用制動壓力傳感器(右)信號代替制動燈信號。因此,如果上述傳感器故障,會造成車輛無法從P擋掛入R擋,以及發動機起動異常。


除此之外,ABS泵、駐車制動電機等部件也都具有一定的自診斷功能,這些部件出現故障,也會在儀表板上或中央控制臺上發出警告提示。


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Vehicles brake system today has already go far beyond the simple way that a driver presses the brake pedal and then the vehicle decelerates under the friction of brake pads and brake discs. Brake booster, brake anti-lock, body stability, and the emerging of advanced driving assistance greatly simplify the brake operation technology required to the drivers. Once there is something wrong to the brake system, a notice will be prompt to the drivers. All of these are in close relation to the application of sensors in the braking system. Today, let’s have a look at the roles that the main sensors play in the braking system.


Monitor the wear to brake pads

Right close to the backing plate of the front brake pads, the friction material is connected to a cable attaching with a connector. There are two wires inside the cable and they are interconnected at the end to the brake plate. The control unit supplies power to them through the wheel speed sensor and monitors the resistance of the wires. When the friction material wears to its extreme, the wires will be exposed and worn off to be detected as open circuits (resistance is infinite) by the control unit. Then the dashboard will prompt brake alarms. 


Wheel speed sensor

The wheel speed sensor works to monitor the wheel speed in real time, as the data reference of ABS pump that is distributing brake forces to each wheel. By reading the signal from the wheel speed sensor, the ABS pump can tell the speed difference of the wheels and make adjustment of the brake force to each individual brake wheel cylinder. Once the ABS pump feels that one wheel speed is abnormal (obviously faster or slower than others), it will amplify or abate the brake force on this wheel to avoid brake deviation or brake lock.


Brake fluid level sensor

In the brake system of modern cars, brake fluid transmits the drivers’ pressing force on brake pedals to the brake cylinders of four wheels. Sufficient brake fluid in brake hoses is the important premise that hydraulic power can push the pistons of brake wheel cylinders effectively. The brake fluid tank is positioned on top of hydraulic brake hoses, with a fluid level sensor that can make use of the conductivity of brake fluid to transmit signals. When the fluid level drops, the electrodes of the sensor will be exposed in the air, failing to be conductive, and then alarms will be prompted on the dash board.


ACC/ADAS radar

Advanced electronic technology enables the vehicles nowadays more intelligent and more secure, and many vehicles are equipped with self-adaptable cruise control (ACC) and automatic emergency brake (AEB). Those driving assisting functions make autos autonomous braking come true.  Lidar, millimeter-wave radar or ultrasonic wave radar installed on front bumpers of vehicles can detect the distance between vehicles and the obstacles ahead.  Electronic equipment however is hardly to be free of break-down.  When something goes wrong with those radars, vehicles dashboard will show a warning sign of ACC failure etc.


Brake disc temperature sensor

Brake force will decline due to the overheating of brake pads and brake discs.  Some high-performance vehicles or vehicles with modifications are used to equipping with brake-disc-temperature-sensors to tell the temperature of the brake system.  This is a non-contact temperature sensor converting the heat radiation received into temperature showing to the drivers.  One more advanced application of this temperature signal is to drive the wind-plate motor at the brake vents to control the cooling air volume, getting the brake discs to heat up quickly to normal working temperature, or increasing cooling air volume at overheating. 


Brake signal sensor

It is well known to drivers of automatic transmission vehicles that brake pedals should be stepped down when the gear is switched from P to R. And then the brake light switch (left) will be turned on, and the electrical signal that lights up the brake lights will be transmitted to both the engine and the transmission as an activating signal.  Some vehicle engines can only start after reading this signal, and the automatic transmission can only be able to hang in R gear after receiving this signal.  In other cases, a few vehicle models substitute a break pressure sensor (right) for the brake light signal. Once there is any problem to the sensors above, the gears of the vehicles will not be able to transfer from P to R, and the engine will show abnormal at starting. 


In addition, some other parts such as ABS pumps, or parking brake motors etc., also bear the function of self-diagnose, and once there is something wrong with them, alarms will be prompt on the dashboard or the central console. 

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