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發動機水溫高?這些是禍因-What cause the water temperature in engine to rise?

作者:Remsa耐磨士 瀏覽: 發表時間:2019-07-12 13:48:31

開車外出,很多人可能都并不會十分關注發動機的水溫。汽車儀表板上的水溫表讀數,直接反映著發動機的工作溫度。雖然俗稱水溫表,但發動機冷卻系統中流淌的液體并不是水,而是專用的冷卻液。


發動機冷卻液的最佳工作溫度是90℃左右,在這個溫度下,可以確保發動機最佳的工作狀態和效率。而當發生水溫高問題,會導致發動機性能下降,嚴重時會導致發動機異常磨損,甚至機械件的變形和損壞。那么今天我們就來聊聊,引起水溫不正常的因素都有哪些。


1

冷卻液不足

冷卻液是保持發動機運行溫度的重要前提(極少數風冷發動機除外),它可以將內燃機運轉時多余的熱量轉移到冷卻器,并散發掉。因此,如果發動機冷卻系統中的冷卻液不足,則發動機一定會在運轉過程中出現過熱的情況。


冷卻液不足的重要原因之一是系統存在泄漏點,其中比較常見的主要是管路接口密封不嚴、發動機冷卻器破損、冷卻液罐泄漏、冷卻液泵與缸體之間的縫隙,以及節溫器殼體縫隙等。需要冷卻液協助散熱的零部件越多,管路越復雜,發生泄漏的可能性就越大(比如,水冷發電機經常會成為冷卻液的泄漏點)。


如果冷卻系統長期泄漏而車主又并不知道,那么最終等冷卻液流失到一定程度,就會出現發動機過熱的情況,也就是常說的“開鍋”。


2


散熱器故障

散熱器學名熱交換器,其作用是將流經散熱器片的冷卻液的熱量交換到空氣中,達到降溫的作用。因此,如果散熱器的管路因為雜質沉淀過多而堵塞,則散熱器的散熱性能一定會大打折扣,引起水溫過高。


另外,每當春季和秋季,大家也需要留意一下散熱器前側附著的楊絮、柳絮和落葉等雜物。因為這些附著物會阻礙空氣帶走冷卻液的熱量,造成水溫升高。


3


節溫器

節溫器的作用是切換冷卻液的大、小循環模式。其工作原理是用一塊固定形狀的石蠟支撐著一只處于拉長狀態的彈簧,當水溫升高,石蠟遵循自身物理特性開始變軟,無法抵消彈簧回復力,節溫器的體積就此減小,從而打開大循環水路。


早期的節溫器是純機械部件,有可能出現卡滯的情況,無法切換成大循環,冷卻液無法進入散熱器進行冷卻,造成水溫高。另外,比較先進的新車型裝備了電子節溫器,通過接收水溫傳感器信號來切換大、小循環。若這種機電裝置出現故障,也可能造成水溫高的情況。


4

其他原因

除了上述提到的故障之外,以下原因也可能引起發動機水溫高的問題。


冷卻液泵因機械損傷會造成工作效率差,造成冷卻液循環速度慢,影響散熱效果。


電子扇葉片損傷或轉速無法隨水溫升高而升擋,會影響冷卻器的散熱效果,造成水溫高。


若冷卻系統的水溫傳感器或其線路出現故障,發出錯誤的高水溫信號,儀表板上的水溫表會指示溫度高。


加裝的發動機底護板和改裝的渦輪增壓系統中央冷卻器,也會造成冷卻液和機油散熱效果變差,因此各位車主在為愛車進行加裝和改裝時也需要考慮冷卻系統的情況。


各位車友,以上內容是不是讓你對汽車水溫高問題有了更深的了解呢?快去關注一下自己愛車冷卻系統的狀態吧!


分享更多后市場領域的干貨內容,敬請關注 Remsa Brake 公眾號



People traveling by vehicles seldom care about the water temperature in engine. The water-thermometer on the dash board can indicate directly the working temperature of the engine. Though it is called water-thermometer, the liquid inside the engine cooling system is not water but a special coolant. 


The optimal working temperature for engine coolant is about 90℃, at which the engine can be assured to reach the best working condition and efficiency. Rising water temperature will decline the engine performance, or result in abnormal wear to the engine in severe cases, or even worse cause the deformation or damage to the mechanical parts.  Next let's talk about those abnormal factors that cause the water temperature to rise


1


Coolant is in shortage

Coolant is an important premise to keep engines working in proper temperature (air-cooled engine is excluded). It transfers the extra heat of the working internal combustion engine to the cooling unit and then dissipates them. Therefore, if there is not enough coolant in the engine cooling system, overheating will occur in the working process of the engine.  


Somewhere leaking is one of the important reasons for the shortage of coolant. The leaking normally happens when the hoses connections are not well sealed, the cooling unit is damaged, the coolant tank is leaking, or at the gaps between the coolant pump and cylinder or thermostat housing. The more components involve in the heat dissipation by coolant and the more complex for the hoses, the more likely to have leaking (e.g. leaking always happens in water-cooled generator).


If the cooling system leaks for long without being noticed by the driver, overheating also known as “boils” will happens when the coolant runs out to a certain degree.


2

Radiators break down

Radiators officially called heat exchangers, transfer the heat of the coolant flowing through radiators into air to decrease temperature. Therefore, once radiators are clogged by overmuch impurities deposit, the heat dissipation performance of radiators will be significantly degraded causing water temperature to rise. 


Moreover, when spring or autumn comes, we should pay attention to sundries like catkins and fallen leaves clinging to the front of radiators.  Those sundries will impede air taking away the heat from the coolant to bring water temperature high.


3

Thermostat

A thermostat is used for switching long loop circulation and short loop circulation of coolant. Its working principle is to support an elongated spring with a piece of shape-fixed wax, and when water temperature rises, the wax will get soft due to its physical characteristic which make it not be able to offset the restoring force of the spring. Then the volume of the thermostat is reduced to have coolant flowing in the long loop circulation.


The purely mechanical thermostats in early days may get stuck failing to switch the mode into long loop circulation which makes the coolant unable to be into the radiators for cooling and then the water temperature rises. 


4

Other reasons

Besides the problems above, the points below also possibly lead to high water temperature in engines.


Because of mechanical damages the coolant pumps will be in poor working efficiency leading to slow coolant circulation to lower the heat dissipation efficiency.


Damaged electric fans or fan rotation speed that can’t shift up with rising water temperature, also affect the heat dissipation of the cooling unit adversely to heat up the water temperature. 


Once there are some problems to the water temperature sensor or lines in the cooling system, a wrongly high water temperature signal will be sent out and the water thermometer will indicate the temperature high on the dash board.


Additional installed engine bottom guard and modified turbocharging system may also decline the heat dissipation efficiency of the coolant and engine oil. So it is necessary to take the cooling system into account when you install or modify your vehicles.


Have the article above brought you a deep understanding to vehicles water temperature?  And you do have to check the cooling system in your vehicles every now and then. 


For more excellent stories about aftermarket, please follow our Wechat public account Remsa Brake.



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